How does solar cell work?

How does solar cell work?

How does solar cell work?  Solar batteries have many practical applications. They are particularly suitable for areas where grid access is difficult to reach such as high mountains,

beyond remote islands, or serving space operations; specifically, satellites orbiting the earth orbit, handheld computers, remote cell phones, water pumping equipment… How does solar cell work

What is the solar battery? How does it work?

Solar batteries ( solar cells / photovoltaic batteries) are devices that directly convert solar energy

(photovoltaic) energy into electrical energy (electricity) based on the photoelectric effect. How does solar cell work
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The photoelectric effect is the ability to emit electrons when the light is illuminated by matter.

Solar panels, large surface panels that collect sunlight and turn it into electricity, How does solar cell work

are made of many photovoltaic cells that perform the process of generating electricity from sunlight.
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Silicon is known as a semiconductor. “Semiconductors are intermediate materials between conductors and insulators. How does solar cell work

Semiconductors act as an insulator at low temperatures and conductivity at room temperature.” With such properties, silicon is an essential component in the construction of solar cells.
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Silicon has a limited electrical conductivity, but it has an excellent crystal structure for making semiconductors.

The silicon atom needs four electrons to neutralize the charge, but the outer shell of a silicon atom has only half of the particles required, How does solar cell work


so it will stick with other molecules to find a way to neutralize the charge.

To increase the conductivity of silicon, scientists ” implicated ” it by combining it with other materials.

How does solar cell work
How does solar cell work

This process is called ” doping “, and silicon doped with impurities creates more free electrons and holes.

A silicon semiconductor has two parts, each of which is doped with another material. The first part is mixed with phosphorus, and phosphorus needs 5 electrons to neutralize the charge and has enough 5 electrons in its shell.

When combined with silicon, an atom will be redundant. Particles are specific to negative charges, so this part will be called N-type silicon (N electrode). To create type P silicon (P electrode), scientists combine silicon with boron.

Boron only needs 3 electrons to neutralize the charge, and when combined with silicon it will create holes that need to be filled with particles. How does solar cell work


When silicon semiconductors are in contact with energy, free electrons at the N-electrode will move to fill the holes on the electrode P. Then, the particles from the N electrode and the P electrode will be together. Create an electric field. Solar cells will become a diode, allowing electrons to travel from the P-electrode to N-electrode, not allowing reverse movement.

Of course, to activate the process requires energy to contact the silicon cells.

Sunlight consists of tiny particles called photons emitted from the sun, small particles of energy that can come into contact with solar cells and loosen the bonding of electrons at the N electrode.

The movement of free electrons from N-electrode to P-electrode creates an electric current.

When the electric field is created, all we need to do is collect and convert it into usable current. An inverter attached to solar cells will turn DC (DC) into alternating current (AC). Alternating current is the current we are using everywhere. How does solar cell work

Current solar cells are still ineffective

Technologies that turn sunlight into electricity are still weak. Solar panels have not been able to absorb all the energy of the sun.

In general, the best solar cells currently can only transfer 25% of the energy it receives into electricity.

Why so? The fact that sunlight, like all other types of light, consists of a spectrum with different wavelengths, each with a different intensity.

There are too weak wavelengths that cannot release electrons, and some wavelengths are too strong for silicon.

Moreover, solar panels should be placed in extraordinary positions.

The angle of the solar panels needs to be calculated to get the maximum amount of sunlight, and of course, solar panels are only handy if placed in a place with lots of sunshine.

Putting solar panels in sunny, sunny spots will turn them into ridiculous and expensive artworks.

Current solar cells are still ineffective

Scientists are still studying to develop more efficient solar panels.

Solar cells are thin films, produced from cadmium, much smaller than silicon cells and are better able to absorb solar energy.

But right now, the ability to convert the collected energy into cadmium solar cell electricity is still quite weak.
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However, scientists want to study more about this type of solar cell because they are cheap and convenient.

One of the other significant innovations worth mentioning is ” black silicon “.

Black silicon is processed silicon that has a black surface because black absorbs light better.

Black silicon will create solar cells that are better absorbable, especially in areas of low light or often exposed to low-light sunlight.

The biggest drawback at the moment is that the process of creating black for silicon increases its surface area, which increases the recombination of electrons.

Free electrons will search for recombination with silicon cells rather than moving to join another atom to create an electric current.

The process of studying black silicon is still ongoing.

Recently, Finnish scientists have found a way to reduce recombination cases, increasing the ability to convert sunlight into electricity to 22.1%.

This level of metabolism is still not as typical as silicon, but it will undoubtedly be improved in the future. How does solar cell work

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